Lest We Forget

Teacher support and background information

Classroom units of work to mark the 100th Anniversary of the ANZAC Landings at Gallipoli
Age of enlistment In Australia during WW1, soldiers had to be 21 years old to enlist, or 18 with their parent or guardian's permission.
Further information: Australian War Memorial – underage and boy soldiers.
ANZAC ANZAC stands for Australian and New Zealand Army Corps. The soldiers who belonged to this corps became known as ANZACs
ANZAC biscuits ANZAC biscuits are traditionally associated with ANZAC day. No one knows for sure how they got their name, but it is likely they were sent out to soldiers as part of care parcels from home because of their long shelf-life (which is partly due to the lack of eggs which were scarce during WW1). The first recipes for ANZAC biscuits appeared in recipe books in the 1920s. ANZAC biscuits are not to be confused with ANZAC wafers or tiles which were also called hardtack and used as a replacement for bread for soldiers as part of their rations. 
Further information: Australian War Memorial – history of ANZAC biscuits; ANZAC biscuits recipes.
ANZAC day ANZAC Day is observed on the 25th of April each year. This date was officially named ANZAC Day in 1916 in order to commemorate the ANZAC soldiers who landed and fought at Gallipoli on 25th April 1915. After WW2 ANZAC Day became a day on which the country remembers all Australians who died during wars, and in recent times it commemorates all Australians who have been killed in any military operations.
Further information: Australian War Memorial – Anzac Day tradition;
ANZAC marches Marches and parades are common in major cities and towns on ANZAC Day. Returned and currently serving servicemen and women, and sometimes family members, parade through the town to commemorate their fallen colleagues, and people attend in order to pay tribute to past and present ANZACs.
Armistice An armistice is a suspension of fighting. At 11am on 11th November 1918, the guns on both sides fell silent, and the ceasefire marked the German surrender. A formal peace treaty was later signed in June 1919.
Further information: Imperial War Museum – Armistice
Causes of WW1 The causes of WW1 are complex. The war was triggered by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand (the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary) by a Bosnian nationalist called Gavrilo Princip. In 1914 Bosnia was a region in the southern area of Austria-Hungary. Many of the Bosnians wanted to be an independent country and not be under the rule of Austria-Hungary. The country of Serbia, just south of the Austria-Hungary border, also wanted freedom for the Bosnians. Serbia was an ally with the powerful Russian Empire and Austria-Hungary was allied with Germany. The Austria-Hungary government saw the assassination as a direct attack on the country. They believed that the Serbians had helped the Bosnian terrorists in the attack. They made harsh demands on the Serbians which the Serbians rejected. At the same time, Russia began to mobilize their army to help protect Serbia. When Serbia rejected the demands, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. A few days later, Germany declared war on Russia to help its ally Austria-Hungary. Then France began to mobilize to help its ally Russia, and Germany followed by declaring war on France. World War I had begun. 
Cenotaph A cenotaph (meaning empty tomb in Greek) is a memorial to those whose bodies lie elsewhere. In Sydney there is a cenotaph in Martin Place which also is the site of one of the city’s ANZAC day ceremonies.
Further information: Register of War Memorials in NSW – Cenotaph
Dawn service The Dawn service is a traditional part of ANZAC Day commemorations. Many dawn services are held at WW1 memorials across Australia.
Further Information: Army – Dawn Service
Digger The term digger was commonly used during WW1 to refer to ANZAC soldiers. The word now symbolises the ANZAC spirit of egalitarianism, mateship, courage and good humour. Australian Government - mateship, diggers and wartime
Flanders Fields Flanders Fields is the common name for the battlefields in the Belgian ‘Flanders’ provinces which surround the strategically important town of Ypres, which gives its name to the three key Western Front ‘Battles of Ypres’. The second battle of Ypres waged concurrently with the Gallipoli Campaign, lasting from 22nd April 1915 until 25th May 1915. It famously marked the first use of poisonous gas by the Germany army. Flanders is famously referenced in the poem 'In Flanders Fields' by John McCrae which is often used during ANZAC commemoration ceremonies and services.
Further information: WW1 Battlefields – Flanders
Gallipoli The Gallipoli Campaign (also called the Dardanelles Campaign) lasted from 25th April 2015 until 9th January 2016. The campaign intended to take control of the Gallipoli peninsula and the Dardanelles Strait (a sea route into allied Russia). Control of this area would enable the allies to capture the Turkish capital Constantinople, topple the Ottoman empire and create a new battlefront to distract Germany from the Western Front. After a number of heroic offensives and operations the Allies were unsuccessful in gaining control of the peninsula and decided to evacuate. The evacuation was successfully carried out during December of 1915. The last ANZAC troops left on 20th December the last British troops had departed by 9th January 1916.
Further information: Army – Gallipoli; Anzac Site
Indigenous soldiers Indigenous soldiers fought in WW1, although there are varying estimations of their numbers (between 500–1000). In the Army they were treated as equals, with the same pay and conditions as all other soldiers, however on their return they were still heavily discriminated against, despite their service and contribution.
Further information: Australian War Memorial – Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in the Australian Defence Force; State Library of NSW –  Indigenous Australian soldiers; Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islander Studies (AIATSIS) –  Indigenous Australians at War.
Light Horsemen The Light Horsemen were mounted soldiers who fought in the war. Not to be confused with cavalry (who fought on their horses), mounted infantry used their horses to reach and leave the battlefield quickly, but fought on the ground (exceptions to this include the famous 1917 Battle of Beersheba). By the end of the war there were 16 Light Horse Regiments. The regiments generally attracted young men from the country who sometimes supplied their own horses (and even dogs!).
Further information: The Australian Light Horse Association – the mounted soldiers of Australia
Lone Pine The phrase ‘Lone Pine’ commemorates the Battle of Lone Pine which took place during the Gallipoli campaign from 6th-9th August 1915. The name comes from a single lone pine tree which was used as a reference point during the battle. Seeds from the pine branches used to cover the trenches were collected by Lance Corporal Benjamin Smith (whose brother Mark was killed in the battle) and sent to his mother in Inverell, where she planted them in commemoration in 1928. One seedling was kept in Inverell and the other was planted in Canberra in 1934 in the grounds of the Australian War Memorial.
Further information: Australian War Memorial – Battle of Lone Pine; ABC News Lone Pine Tree
Nurses The Royal Australian Army Nursing Service (AANS) was formed in July 1902. It was staffed by volunteer civilian nurses. Approximately 2300 nurses served overseas and hundreds more served at home. The nurses worked in hospitals, on hospital ships and trains or in casualty clearing stations closer to the front line. They faced harsh conditions and many were decorated for bravery.
Further information:  Australian War Memorial – Great War nurses; ANZAC site – nurses letters from Gallipoli; Defence – history of the RAANC
Poppy Red poppies were first used as a symbol to commemorate Remembrance Day but are now a widely used symbol for WW1. During WW1 red poppies were among the first plants to grow in the destroyed battlefields of northern France and Belgium. Soldiers used to say their bright red colour came from the blood of their fallen comrades. The RSL adopted the poppy as the international Armistice Day memorial flower in 1921.
Further information: Australian War Memorial – red poppies; Army – the red poppy
Remembrance Day Originally called Armistice Day, Remembrance Day falls on the 11th November each year and marks the signing of the armistice on 11th November 1918 which signalled the German surrender and the end of WW1. The name was changed from Armistice Day to Remembrance Day after the end of WW2 in order to commemorate those who died in both wars. The armistice was signed at the eleventh hour (11am) of the eleventh day of the eleventh month and every year, at this time, Australians hold one minute’s silence to honour those who lost their lives in all wars and conflicts.
Further information: Army – Remembrance Day
RSL (Returned and Services League) The Returned and Services League was formed in 1916 (originally as the The Returned Sailors and Soldiers Imperial League of Australia) and supports both surviving and ex-service men and women and their families. The RSL was formed out of concern for the welfare of returned serviceman from WW1. As well as helping servicemen and women and their families, RSLs commemorate their fallen colleagues and are a key part of ANZAC Day and Remembrance Day celebrations.
Shell shock Shell shock was the name for the psychological trauma suffered by soldiers during WW1. Symptoms varied widely and often depended on the soldiers’ personal experiences. It was originally named because it was thought to be related to the effect of heavy shelling upon soldiers’ nerves. However this definition was widened because it affected many soldiers who had not been on the frontlines or exposed to shelling. Further information: BBC History – shell shock
Simpson and his donkey John Simpson Kirkpatrick was a solider with Australian Army Medical Corps where he was part of the 3rd Field Ambulance. He landed at Gallipoli on the first day of the battle and befriended a donkey which he used to help carry the wounded down to the dressing station. His first donkey was variously known as Abdul, Murphy or Duffy. He quickly became famous for working bravely, tirelessly and cheerfully as he helped wounded soldiers. He was killed on 19th May 1915 and has come to symbolise the ANZAC spirit during Gallipoli.
Further information: Australian War Memorial – John Simpson Kirkpatrick
The Last Post The Last Post is the bugle call that signifies the end of the day’s activities. It is commonly played at services on ANZAC Day and Remembrance Day, where it marks the start of the minute’s silence, and at military funerals.
Further information: Army – The Last Post
The Reveille The Reveille is the bugle that signifies the beginning of the day. It is commonly played at services on ANZAC Day and Remembrance Day, where it marks the end of the minute’s silence. It is also commonly played during Dawn services.
Further information: Army – The Rouse and the Reveille
Trenches Trench warfare became synonymous with WW1. At both Gallipoli and the Western Front, armies on both sides dug trenches where they lived day and night. Conditions in the trenches were often terrible, and soldiers often became ill as a result.
Further information: BBC Schools – Life on the front line
The Western Front The Western Front was the name commonly used to describe the area where the Germans ‘dug in’ after their initial advance through Luxembourg, Belgium and parts of France. The front ran through Belgium and France and saw many bloody and deadly battles during the war. Australian soldiers were sent to the front in 1916 after being transferred from Egypt after the evacuation of Gallipoli. The Western Front became the site of many famous battles involving Australian soldiers including Fromelles, the Somme, Bullecourt, Messines, Passchendaele and Villers–Bretonneux.
Further information: Army – WW1 The Western Front

Supporting resources

ANZAC DAY  Website (ANZAC Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland)
ANZAC Site  Australian government
Australian Poetry Library  Poems about Australians at War
Australian Roll of Honour  Searchable database
Australian War Memorial Australian War Memorial
Centenary of the First World War   Australian War Memorial. Outline of their centenary commemorations
Children's War Books  Reviews by a New Zealand author
Dawn of a Legend  Australian War Memorial. Online exhibition telling the story of the Australians who landed at Gallipoli and the creation of the Anzac legend.
Discovering ANZACs  National Archives of Australia. Explore a growing selection of Australian and New Zealand government records about soldiers, munitions workers, nurses, conscription, internment, wartime copyright and patents, defence correspondence and more.
Europeana 1914–1918 Untold stories and official histories of WW!
First World War 1914–18  Australian War Memorial. An outline of Australia's involvement in WW1
Gallipoli: The first day  Interactive site from ABC 3D animation, video, audio, interviews, soldier profiles
Investigating Gallipoli: a resource for primary schools  Department of Veterans' Affairs
Letter to an Unknown Solider project  1418NOW project in the UK. Inspired by the statue of a solider reading a letter on platform 1 of Paddington station. People of all ages from across the UK wrote letters to this solider and these letters serve as a cultural memorial featured on the website.
Scoop it WW1 Teaching Resources  Catherine Smyth
Sites2See: ANZAC DAY for Primary NSW Department of Education and Communities
Sites2See: ANZAC DAY for Secondary NSW Department of Education and Communities
Snapshot of Australia at the outbreak of WW1 ABC website showing photos and statistics about life in Australia in 1914
The ANZAC Day Tradition  Australian War Memorial. What do we commemorate and how?
The Commemoration of ANZAC Day
Australian War Memorial
The War Poetry Website First World War poems and poets
Their Spirit, Our History  Australian War Memorial. Downloadable booklet written to help young Australians to understand the historical significance of Anzac Day. It includes commemorative classroom activities and an outline for planning your own commemorative ceremony.
World War 1 Collections State Library of NSW. Original documents, letters, diaries and images from WW1.

Related literature

Title Author/illustrator Publisher Date Age Fiction/Non fiction
Lennie the Legend: Solo to Sydney by pony Stephanie Owen Reeder NLA Publishing
2015 10+ NF
Lest we Forget Kerry Brown / Isobel Knowles and Benjamin Portas HarperCollins 2015 5+ Fiction
Eventual Poppy Day
Libby Hathorn HarperCollins 2015 12+ Fiction
The Donkey who Carried the Wounded Jackie French HarperCollins 2009 13+ NF
Simpson and his Donkey/The donkey of Gallipoli Mark Greenwood & Frane Lessac Walker Books 2009 6–9 NF
Simpson and Duffy Mary Small /Ester Kasepuu ANZAC Day Commemoration Committee Qld Inc 2003 10+ NF
Across the Bar: The story of Simpson—The man with the donkey Tom Curran Ogmios Publications 1994 12+ NF
The Man with the Donkey: John Simpson Kirkpatrick-The good Samaritan of Gallipoli Sir Irving Benson Hodder and Stoughton 1965 12+ NF
The Gallipoli Story Patrick Carlyon Penguin 2003



Gallipoli Kerry Greenwood / Annie White Scholastic 2014 5+ NF
The Spirit of Gallipoli Patrick Lindsay Hardie Grant Books 2013 15+ NF
Gallipoli—The Final Battles and Evacuation of Anzac David W Cameron Big Sky Publishing/Kindle 2011


My Mother’s Eyes: The Story of a Boy Soldier Mark Wilson Hachette 2011 10+


Anzac Biscuits Phil Cummings / Owen Swan Scholastic 2013 5–12 Fiction
An Anzac Tale (graphic novel) Ruth Starke / Greg Holfeld Working title press 2013 10+

Gallipoli Medals Goldie Anderson New School Books 2013 8+ NF
A is for ANZACS Matt Anderson Anzac Day commemoration Committee Qld 2014 5+ NF
In Flanders Fields Norman Jorgensen/Brian Harrison-Lever Fremantle Press 2014 8+ NF
Why Are They Marching Daddy? Di Burke / Elizabeth Alger Anzac Day Commemoration Committee Qld 2004 5+ Fiction
My Grandad Marches on Anzac Day Catriona Hoy / Benjamin Johnson Hachette 2008 5–8 NF
Anzac Day Parade Glenda Kane/ Lisa Allen Puffin NZ 2010 5+ Fiction
Memorial Gary Crew/ Shaun Tan Lothian Books 1999 8+ Fiction
A Rose for the Anzac Boys Jackie French HarperCollins 2008 12+ Fiction
Scarecrow Army: The ANZACS at Gallipoli Leon Davidson Black Dog Books 2005 8+ NF
Caesar the ANZAC Dog Patricia Stroud / Bruce Potter HarperCollins 2003 10+ NF
The House that was Built in a Day – Anzac Cottage Valerie Everett / Barbara McGuire Cygnet Books 2007 8+ NF
The Silver Donkey Sonya Hartnett Penguin Books 2007 10+ Fiction
A Day to Remember: The Story of Anzac Day Jackie French / Mark Wilson Angus & Robertson (PETAA unit of work for members) 2012 8+ NF
Lone Pine Susie Brown & Margaret Walker / Sebastian Ciaffaglione Little Hare 2012 8+ NF
Somme Mud Ed. Will Davis Random House 2010 12+ NF
One Minute’s Silence David Metzenthen / Michael Camilleri Allen & Unwin 2014 8+ Fiction
The Red Poppy David Hill / Fifi Colston Scholastic NZ 2012 8+ Fiction
War Horse Michael Morpurgo Kaye & Ward, Great Britain 1982 10+ Fiction
Soldier Boy Anthony Hill Penguin 2001 10+ NF
Archie’s War Marcus Williams Walker Books UK 2014 7+ NF
Meet the ANZACs Claire Saxby/Max Berry Random House 2014 10+ Picture Book
The Great War Ed. JIM Kay Walker 2014 10+ NF
Light Horse Boy Diane Wolfer/Brian Simmonds Fremantle Press (PETAA unit of work) 2013 10+ NF
Zero Hour: The ANZACs on the Western Front Leon Davidson Text Publishing (PETAA unit of work for members) 2010 11+ NF
Fromelles: Australia’s Bloodiest Day at War Carole Wilkinson Black Dog Books (PETAA unit of work for members) 2011 10+ NF
The Beach They called Gallipoli Jackie French / Bruce Whatley HarperCollins 2014 9+ NF
And the Band played Walzing Matilda  Eric Bogle/Bruce Whatley  Allen & Unwin  2015  10+  Fiction
Their Spirit: Our History    Australian War Memorial  2007    NF 
Mud, Blood & Tears  Annotated list of children's books about war and conflict  Children's Book Council of Australia  2014   Teachers  
One Minute's Silence DavidMetzenthen/ Michael Camilleri Allen & Unwin 2014 10+ Fiction
The Poppy Andrew Plant Ford Street 2014 8+ Fiction
The Soldier's Gift Tony Palmer/ Jane Tanner Penguin 2014 10+ Fiction
Only a Donkey Celeste Walters/ Patricia Mullins  Penguin 2007 7+ Fiction
Not Only a Hero: An illustrated life of Simpson, the man with the donkey  Tom Curran   Anzac Day Commemoration Committee Qld  1998  10+  NF 
Scarecrow Army Leon Davidson  Black Dog 2005 10+ Fiction
Gallipoli and the Southern Theaters Gary Jeffrey  Crabtree Publications 2013 10+ Graphic Modern History
The Anzac Spirit: Australia's Military Legend Michael Andrews Trocadero 2013 10+ NF ebook
World War 1: The Australian Experience Michael Andrews Trocadero 2013 10+ NF ebook
Beach Burial Kenneth Slessor         
Dulce et Decorum est
Wilfred Owen